|Publication Type:||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication:||2016|
|Authors:||E. Perkovsky, Wegierek P.|
|Conference Name:||The 7th International Conference on Fossil Insects, Arthropods and Amber|
|Publisher:||Siri Scientific Press|
|Conference Location:||National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh|
The Cainophyte tropical fauna of aphids was depleted because of the low heat tolerance of Buchnera and the associated switch of aphids to obligatory parthenogenesis at high average annual temperatures. Cretaceous aphids were affected more than other insects by the extinction event at the Mesozoic–Cenozoic boundary. Their extinction was simultaneous with the establishment of symbiosis between the surviving aphidoids and Formicinae or Dolichoderinae, which was accompanied by the rise and expansion of all three groups.